Protection of Monuments

Present Status of State Protected Monuments, Haryana

S.No. District Date Name of State Protected Monument/Area Construction unit Material recommended for Conservation/Restoration

Mortar         Plaster
Remarks, Textual Reference &  Photograph
1 Ambala 1902 AD European Cemetery, Ambala Cantt. Brick Lime, surkhi, and clay Lime & surkhi   arch-1
2 Yamunanagar circa 3rd Century BC Budhist Stupa, Chaneti Brick Mud Mortar   Ref : Vinay Pitak(II)  style In 3rd century, North India regarding Additives  people used Mustard cake, bee-wax and oil   Vinay Pitak(III)  style Rice husk arch-2
3 Yamunanagar Circa 5th Century BC to 12th Century AD Ancient Site Sugh, village Amadalpur Brick Mud Mortar Mud Clay Ref : Vishnudharmottar Purana style                             In 4th - 5th century, North India regarding Additives  people used Bee-Wax, Oil of Kusum, Jaggery, Belgiri, Milk, Balsamodendron (Guggul), Mahua, Cast Iron, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Bark of Neem, Resin of Sal Tree and in 5th century Extracts of plants arch-3
4 Panchkula circa 9-11th Century AD Bhima Devi Temple & Takiya Bawa Fakir, Pinjore Stone Mud Mortar   Ref : Apparajita Pracch  In 11th century, North India regarding plaster people used mud Chalk, red ochre (Geru), Yellow ochre (ramraj) and as Additives they used Oil, Jaggery, Milk, Linn Seed, Jau, Wheat Flour, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Mimosops Elengi, Bhatkattaya, Ghee arch-4
5 Panchkula 19th century AD Nahan Kothi Brick Lime, surkhi, and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h5
6 Kurukshetra circa 8-9th century AD Prachi Shiv Mandir, Pehowa Stone Mud Mortar     arc3.h6
7 Kurukshetra circa 8-9th century AD Vishwa Mitra Ka Tila, Pehowa Brick       arc3.h7
8 Kurukshetra 1st Centuary A.D. –  8th centuary A.D. Buddhist  Stupa, Kurukshetra Brick Clay and lime (Sand, clay, lime and water in proper proportion until the entire mass become plastic and homogeneous)   Ref: Jaggi, O.P., Dawn of Indian Technology, Vol-I

Ist Century AD- Regarding Mortar- Clay and lime (Sand, clay, lime and water in proper proportion until the entire mass become plastic and homogeneous), Plaster - Lime or lime based material were used for plastering (but occasionally mud and sand) & Additives - Cow Dung

Ref. Mayamat chp.18

As per Bhrugusamhita

Process of preparation of lime mortar

1. Excavation of lime stone from underground mines

2. Calcinatation (Burning lime stones)

3. Quenching (cooling) with water to obtain a slaked lime

4. Sieving of the material to remove stones and other impurities.

5. Lime mortar preparation by mixing with sand

6. Pulverization by Lime mill to obtain the mortar.

 

Five types of sands for lime mortars

1. Karal (size similar to hirda seeds)

2. Mugdi (size similar to green gram seeds)

3. Gulmash (medium size sand)

4. Kalk (size similar to Bengal gram flour)

5. ChikkaN (Fine silt)

Ref: Carran, Dorn et al. A Short History of the Use of Lime as a Building Material beyond Europe and North America

                           

Regarding Lime plaster people used gypsum, clay & phosphate. Proportion of sand: lime is 1:1 to 4:3

             

Ref : Vishnudharmottar Purana style

In 4th - 5th centuryAD, North India regarding Additives  people used Bee-Wax, Oil of Kusum, Jaggery, Belgiri, Milk, Balsamodendron (Guggul), Mahua, Cast Iron, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Bark of Neem, Resin of Sal Tree and in 5th century Extracts of plants

 

Ref: Ancient Indian texts such as Brhatsamhita of Varaha-Mihira and Mayamatam of Sage Maya (5-6th century AD)describe the materials and methods of cementing material in chapter Vajralepa.

 

The ingredients are

1. Unripe fruits of Tinduka and Kapittaka,

2. Flowers of silk cotton

3. Seeds of Sallaki

4. barks of Dhanavana and Vacha

All these ingredients are boiled in 256 parts of water till the decoction reduces to One-eighth of its original volume (i.e.32 Parts). The sediments are mixed with substances, such as. First Variety Explained in Brihatsamhita

Unsuitable trees Pipal , Banyan , Holy fig, KadambaSaptaparn ,Tamarind BilvaPalash, Pilu ,Kutaj, Shlemantak, Lodhra , Parijat, Kovider, Shirish, Plaksha, MahadroomNissar trees and Sarvassar trees are unsuitable construction

Forbidden Trees • Milky Trees: (with poisonous juices): milk bush • Thorny Trees: Babul or Prickly pear • Trees having hard through out: Tamarind or Bunyan tree. • Bushes: Which give shelter to small animals and consequently serpents frequent them. • Fruit bearing Trees: Mango, Guava etc. People are tempted to throw stones. • Other Trees (Trees without hard core)

 

Ref: Karanth , R. V. ’, K. Krishnan” and K. T. M. Hegde, Petrography of Ancient Indian Lime Plaster

 

In 7th -8th century regarding plaster material they used Lime Plaster Kankar Lime and sand

 

For clay people used BANGAR soil or older alluvium which represents the upland alluvial tracts of the Great Plains of India, formed by the older alluviums. The Bhangar formations were deposited during the middle Pleistocene Period. The Bhangar land lies above the flood limits of the rivers. The soil is dark in colour, rich in humus content and productive. It contains concretions and nodules of impure calcium carbonate or Wankar'. Features of this soil are : a) Clayey &   dark in colour, b) Coarse in nature, c) Contains Kankar (lime nodules), Pebbles and Gravels and d) Represents riverine alluvium of Himalayan rivers

These soils were deposited at an earlier time and have not naturally been disturbed much. These soils are found in upland areas of river deltas. Occasional pebble-beds may be present and hard pans may be formed sometimes at certain depths due to binding of soil grains by infiltrating silica or calcareous matter.

arc3.h8
9 Karnal 1540-44 AD Old Badshahi Bridge, Village Uchasiwan, Karnal Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi Used  “Kankar lime” which is made from special type of clay. It is unfertile soil (Saline/User) and is rich in iron. It is also called kankar.  arc3.h9
10 Karnal Circa 18-19th century AD Prachin Shiv Mandir, Village Salwan, Karnal Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h10
11 Karnal 19th century AD Victoria Memorial Hall, Karnal Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi    arc3.h11
12 Kaithal circa 16th  Century A.D Tomb of Shiekh Tayyab, Kaithal Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution arc3.h12
13 Kaithal Circa 18-19th century AD Brick Baoli, Kaithal Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h13
14 Kaithal 3500-2000 BC Ancient Mound, Balu, Kaithal         arc3.h14
15 Mewat 1451 AD Dehra Mandir, Firozepur, Jhirkha Stone Lime, surkhi and clay Lime & surkhi    arc3.h15
16 Palwal circa 17th century  AD Ancient Gumbad, Palwal Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi

Ingredient for Lime plasters

1 Ash

9 Cow dung

17 Mahuwa flowers

2 Bark of Neem

10 Egg white

18 Milk, curd or ghee

3 Bark of Pakar tree

11 Flowers Silk cotton tree

19 Mustard cake 4 Bee wax

12 Green gram (Moog)

20 oil

5 Belgiri (aegle'pulp)

13 Guggul

21 Powder of Cattle horn

6 Black gram(Udad )

14 Hemp fiber

22 Resin of Sal tree

7 Brick powder

15 Jaggery

23 Rice husk

8 Clay

16 Juice of Cactus

24 Saaf flower oil Natural Polymers

 arc3.h16
17 Jind circa -18th century AD Ancient Fort, Safidon, Jind Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution arc3.h17
18 Jind Harappan,PGW Ancient Mound, Kirsola, Jind          arc3.h18
19 Fatehabad 3500-2000 BC Old Site of Bhirdana Brick (Sun dried) Mud Mortar Mud Clay Pd IA- The walls and floor of dwelling pits were plastered with the yellowish alluvium of the Saraswati valley, Pd IB- The houses were built of mud bricks of buff colour, Pd IIA- The mud brick structures, Pd IIB- The massive fortification wall of the town was made of mud bricks. The houses were made of mud bricks (sun-baked bricks).  arc3.h19
20 Fatehabad Circa 3500-2500 BC (Early Harappan Culture) Old Site of Kunal Brick (Sun dried) Mud Mortar Mud Clay    arc3.h20
21 Hissar circa 12th  to 14th century  AD Tomb of Char Qutab, Hansi Brick with stucco works Lime, surkhi, and clay Lime & surkhi Ref : Abhilashitartha Chintamani                               In12th century, North India regarding plaster people used lime Chalk, Powder of conch shell and as additives they used Jaggery and Glue. In 13th century for plaster Gypsum and lime used along with surkhi  arc3.h21
22 Hissar circa 18th century AD Jahaj Kothi, Hissar Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   images1
23 Gurgaon 1733 AD Shish Mahal, Farukh Nagar Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h23
24 Mahendergarh circa 12th  to 17th century  AD Tomb & Mosque of Pir Turkman, Narnaul Stone and Brick Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi Ref : Abhilashitartha Chintamani                               In12th century, North India regarding plaster people used lime Chalk, Powder of conch shell and as additives they used Jaggery and Glue arc3.h24
25 Mahendergarh 1589 AD Tripolia Gateway, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h25
26 Mahendergarh circa 16th century  AD Tomb of Shah Nizam, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution arc3.h26
27 Mahendergarh 1351-88 AD Chor Gumbad, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h27
28 Mahendergarh circa 18th century  AD Shobha Sarovar, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arc3.h28
29 Mahendergarh circa 17th century  AD Chatta Rai Bal Mukund Dass, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arch-29
30 Mahendergarh 1560-1605 AD Mirza Alijan's Takhat & Baoli, Narnaul Stone Lime, surkhi, sand and clay Lime & surkhi   arch-30