Home

Free Tour To Gallery


About The Deparment | Excavation | Exploration | Museum Activities | Plaster Cast Replicas | Research Publication
Registration & Development

Protection/Conservation on Monuments

Present Status of State Protected Monuments, Haryana

S. No. District Date Name of State Protected                        Monument/Area Construction unit Material recommended for Conservation/Restoration



Mortar                       Plaster
                                            Remarks, Textual Reference &  Photograph                                           

1

Ambala

1902 AD

European Cemetery, Ambala Cantt.

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

2

Yamunanagar

circa 3rd Century BC

Budhist Stupa, Chaneti

Brick

Mud Mortar

 

Ref : Vinay Pitak(II)  style                              

In 3rd century, North India regarding Additives  people used Mustard cake, bee-wax and oil   Vinay Pitak(III)  style Rice husk

3

Yamunanagar

Circa 5th Century BC to 12th Century AD

Ancient Site Sugh, village Amadalpur

Brick

Mud Mortar

Mud Clay

Ref : Vishnudharmottar Purana style                            

In 4th - 5th century, North India regarding Additives  people used Bee-Wax, Oil of Kusum, Jaggery, Belgiri, Milk, Balsamodendron (Guggul), Mahua, Cast Iron, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Bark of Neem, Resin of Sal Tree and in 5th century Extracts of plants

 

4

Panchkula

circa 9-11th Century AD

Bhima Devi Temple & Takiya Bawa Fakir, Pinjore

Stone

Mud Mortar

 

Ref : Apparajita Pracch                             

 In 11th century, North India regarding plaster people used mud Chalk, red ochre (Geru), Yellow ochre (ramraj) and as Additives they used Oil, Jaggery, Milk, Linn Seed, Jau, Wheat Flour, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Mimosops Elengi, Bhatkattaya, Ghee

 

5

Panchkula

19th century AD

Nahan Kothi

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

 

6

Kurukshetra

circa 8-9th century AD

Prachi Shiv Mandir, Pehowa

Stone

Mud Mortar

 

 

 

7

Kurukshetra

circa 8-9th century AD

Vishwa Mitra Ka Tila, Pehowa

Brick

 

 

 

 

8

Kurukshetra

1st Centuary A.D. –  8th centuary A.D.

Buddhist  Stupa, Kurukshetra

Brick

Clay and lime (Sand, clay, lime and water in proper proportion until the entire mass become plastic and homogeneous)

 

Ref: Jaggi, O.P., Dawn of Indian Technology, Vol-I

Ist Century AD- Regarding Mortar- Clay and lime (Sand, clay, lime and water in proper proportion until the entire mass become plastic and homogeneous),  Plaster - Lime or lime based material were used for plastering (but occasionally mud and sand)  & Additives- Cow Dung

 

Ref. Mayamat chp.18

As per Bhrugusamhita

Process of preparation of lime mortar

1. Excavation of lime stone from underground mines

2. Calcinatation (Burning lime stones)

3. Quenching (cooling) with water to obtain a slaked lime

4. Sieving of the material to remove stones and other impurities.

5. Lime mortar preparation by mixing with sand

6. Pulverization by Lime mill to obtain the mortar.

 

Five types of sands for lime mortars

1. Karal (size similar to hirda seeds)

2. Mugdi (size similar to green gram seeds)

3. Gulmash (medium size sand)

4. Kalk (size similar to Bengal gram flour)

5. ChikkaN (Fine silt)

Ref: Carran, Dorn et al. A Short History of the Use of Lime as a Building Material beyond Europe and North America                                

Regarding Lime plaster people used gypsum, clay & phosphate. Proportion of sand: lime is 1:1 to 4:3

             

Ref : Vishnudharmottar Purana style                              

In 4th - 5th centuryAD, North India regarding Additives  people used Bee-Wax, Oil of Kusum, Jaggery, Belgiri, Milk, Balsamodendron (Guggul), Mahua, Cast Iron, Bark of Ficus Weightrana (Pakar), Bark of Neem, Resin of Sal Tree and in 5th century Extracts of plants

Ref: Ancient Indian texts such as Brhatsamhita of Varaha-Mihira and Mayamatam of Sage Maya (5-6th century AD) describe the materials and methods of cementing material in chapter Vajralepa.

The ingredients are

1. Unripe fruits of Tinduka and Kapittaka,

2. Flowers of silk cotton

3. Seeds of Sallaki

4. barks of Dhanavana and Vacha

All these ingredients are boiled in 256 parts of water till the decoction reduces to One-eighth of its original volume (i.e.32 Parts). The sediments are mixed with substances, such as. First Variety Explained in Brihatsamhita

Unsuitable trees Pipal , Banyan , Holy fig, KadambaSaptaparn ,Tamarind BilvaPalash, Pilu ,Kutaj, Shlemantak, Lodhra , Parijat, Kovider, Shirish, Plaksha, MahadroomNissar trees and Sarvassar trees are unsuitable construction

Forbidden Trees • Milky Trees: (with poisonous juices): milk bush • Thorny Trees: Babul or Prickly pear • Trees having hard through out: Tamarind or Bunyan tree. • Bushes: Which give shelter to small animals and consequently serpents frequent them. • Fruit bearing Trees: Mango, Guava etc. People are tempted to throw stones. • Other Trees (Trees without hard core)

 

Ref: Karanth , R. V.’, K. Krishnan” and K. T. M. Hegde, Petrography of Ancient Indian Lime Plaster

In 7th -8th century regarding plaster material they used Lime Plaster Kankar Lime and sand

 

For clay people used BANGAR soil or older alluvium which represents the upland alluvial tracts of the Great Plains of India, formed by the older alluviums. The Bhangar formations were deposited during the middle Pleistocene Period. The Bhangar land lies above the flood limits of the rivers. The soil is dark in colour, rich in humus content and productive. It contains concretions and nodules of impure calcium carbonate or Wankar'. Features of this soil are : a) Clayey &   dark in colour, b) Coarse in nature, c) Contains Kankar (lime nodules), Pebbles and Gravels and d) Represents riverine alluvium of Himalayan rivers

These soils were deposited at an earlier time and have not naturally been disturbed much. These soils are found in upland areas of river deltas. Occasional pebble-beds may be present and hard pans may be formed sometimes at certain depths due to binding of soil grains by infiltrating silica or calcareous matter.

 

9

Karnal

1540-44 AD

Old Badshahi Bridge, Village Uchasiwan, Karnal

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 Used  “Kankar lime” which is made from special type of clay. It is unfertile soil (Saline/User) and is rich in iron. It is also called kankar.

 

10

Karnal

Circa 18-19th century AD

Prachin Shiv Mandir, Village Salwan, Karnal

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

 

11

Karnal

19th century AD

Victoria Memorial Hall, Karnal

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

12

Kaithal

circa 16th  Century A.D

Tomb of Shiekh Tayyab, Kaithal

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution

13

Kaithal

Circa 18-19th century AD

Brick Baoli, Kaithal

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

14

Kaithal

3500-2000 BC

Ancient Mound, Balu, Kaithal

 

 

 

 

15

Mewat

1451 AD

Dehra Mandir, Firozepur, Jhirkha

Stone

 Lime, surkhi and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

16

Palwal

circa 17th century  AD

Ancient Gumbad, Palwal

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

Ingredient for Lime plasters

1 Ash

9 Cow dung

17 Mahuwa flowers

2 Bark of Neem

10 Egg white

18 Milk, curd or ghee

3 Bark of Pakar tree

11 Flowers Silk cotton tree

19 Mustard cake 4 Bee wax

12 Green gram (Moog)

20 oil

5 Belgiri (aegle'pulp)

13 Guggul

21 Powder of Cattle horn

6 Black gram(Udad )

14 Hemp fiber

22 Resin of Sal tree

7 Brick powder

15 Jaggery

23 Rice husk

8 Clay

16 Juice of Cactus

24 Saaf flower oil Natural Polymers

ancient_gumbad_1 

17

Jind

circa -18th century AD

Ancient Fort, Safidon, Jind

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution

18

Jind

 Harappan,PGW

Ancient Mound, Kirsola, Jind

     

 

 

19

Fatehabad

3500-2000 BC

Old Site of Bhirdana

Brick (Sun dried)

Mud Mortar

Mud Clay

Pd IA- The walls and floor of dwelling pits were plastered with the yellowish alluvium of the Saraswati valley, Pd IB- The houses were built of mud bricks of buff colour, Pd IIA- The mud brick structures, Pd IIB- The massive fortification wall of the town was made of mud bricks. The houses were made of mud bricks (sun-baked bricks).

20

Fatehabad

Circa 3500-2500 BC (Early Harappan Culture)

Old Site of Kunal

Brick (Sun dried)

Mud Mortar

Mud Clay

 

21

Hissar

circa 12th  to 14th century  AD

Tomb of Char Qutab, Hansi

Brick with stucco works

 Lime, surkhi, and clay

 Lime & surkhi

Ref : Abhilashitartha Chintamani                              

In12th century, North India regarding plaster people used lime Chalk, Powder of conch shell and as additives they used Jaggery and Glue. In 13th century for plaster Gypsum and lime used along with surkhi

 

22

Hissar

circa 18th century AD

Jahaj Kothi, Hissar

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

23

Gurgaon

1733 AD

Shish Mahal, Farukh Nagar

Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

24

Mahendergarh

circa 12th  to 17th century  AD

Tomb & Mosque of Pir Turkman, Narnaul

Stone and Brick

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

Ref : Abhilashitartha Chintamani                             

 In12th century, North India regarding plaster people used lime Chalk, Powder of conch shell and as additives they used Jaggery and Glue

 

25

Mahendergarh

1589 AD

Tripolia Gateway, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

 

26

Mahendergarh

circa 16th century  AD

Tomb of Shah Nizam, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

Ref: Rezavi,S.Ali Nadeem. Medieval Indian Architecture: Its History and Evolution

27

Mahendergarh

1351-88 AD

Chor Gumbad, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

 

28

Mahendergarh

circa 18th century  AD

Shobha Sarovar, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

29

Mahendergarh

circa 17th century  AD

Chatta Rai Bal Mukund Dass, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi

 

30

Mahendergarh

1560-1605 AD

Mirza Alijan's Takhat & Baoli, Narnaul

Stone

 Lime, surkhi, sand and clay

 Lime & surkhi